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Mubarak: A timeline

Ahram Online presents a timeline of the major milestones in the life of Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak

Zeinab El-Gundy , Tuesday 25 Feb 2020
Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (AFP)
Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (AFP)
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Ahram Online presents a timeline of the major milestones in the life of former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak, covering his rise to power in the 1980s up to the aftermath of the 2011 uprising that deposed the longtime autocrat.

* 4 May 1928: Mohamed Hosni El-Sayid Mubarak was born in Kafr Meselha, Menoufiya governorate in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

* 2 February 1949: Mubarak left the military academy and joined the Egyptian Royal Air Force Academy.

* 13 March 1950: He graduated as a pilot officer.

young Royal Egyptian Air Force Lieutenant
An undated file photo released on January 01, 1952 shows Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak as a young Royal Egyptian Air Force Lieutenant taken before the revolution that deposed King Farouk in 1952. (AFP)

* 1959: Mubarak married Suzanne Thabet.

Family
(FILES) A file photo released on October 03, 2007 shows President Hosni Mubarak (2nd-R) posing with his wife Suzanne (C), accompanied by their two sons Gamal (R) and Alaa (2nd-L) with his wife Heidi al-Rasekh (L) in the Tahadeya Palace in Cairo. (AFP)

* November 1967: He was appointed as the director of the Egyptian Air Forces Academy.

* 23 April 1972: Mubarak was appointed as the commander of the Egyptian Air Forces.

Egypt
FILE - In this Sunday, Oct. 6, 1974 file photo Egypt's Air Force commander Hosni Mubarak reviews a military parade in Cairo.(AP)

* 16 April 1975: Then-president Anwar El-Sadat appointed Mubarak as his vice president.

Egypt
FILE - In this undated photo taken in 1979, Egypt's President Anwar Sadat, left, makes remarks as Vice President Hosni Mubarak, center, looks on in Cairo, Egypt. (AP)

* 24 October 1981: Mubarak became the fourth president of the Egyptian republic, succeeding President Sadat after his assassination on 6th October 1981.

1981
FILE - In this Oct. 6, 1981 file photo, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, right, and Vice President Hosni Mubarak sit on the reviewing stand during a military parade just before soldiers opened fire from a truck during the parade at the reviewing stand, killing Sadat and injuring Mubarak. (AP)

* 25 April 1982: Mubarak raised the Egyptian flag over the Sinai Peninsula after its complete restoration from the Israeli occupation.

* 25 February 1986: Riots erupted in Cairo sparked by angry security conscripts, and the unrest was violently quelled by Mubarak’s security forces.

* 19 March 1989: Mubarak raised the Egyptian flag in Taba, the last Egyptian territory occupied by Israel in 1967, following talks and an international arbitration battle.

* 2 June 1989: Egypt under Mubarak returned to the League of Arab States as a full member, after its membership had been suspended over of its peace treaty with Israel in 1979.

Arab summit
(FILES) A file photo taken on March 27, 2001 shows Arab leaders attending the Arab summit in Amman, pose for a group picture. (AFP)

* 1990-1991: Under Mubarak, Egypt joined the international coalition formed to liberate Kuwait after the Iraqi invasion.

* 26 June 1995: Mubarak survived an assassination attempt shortly after his arrival in Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa to attend the African Unity Summit.

* 17 November 1997: Al-Gamaa Al-Islamiya terrorist group killed 62 people, mostly tourists, in a terrorist attack in Luxor.

* 22 December 1999: Egypt started exporting gas to Israel in a controversial agreement that would later be challenged in court.

* 27 September 2005: Mubarak was sworn in as president for the fifth consecutive term following his victory in the first multi-candidate presidential elections, after amending the constitution in May of that year.

FILE PHOTO: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (C) speaks to supporters during a rally in Cairo, Egypt
FILE PHOTO: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (C) speaks to supporters during a rally in Cairo, Egypt September 4, 2005. (Reuters)

* 6 April 2008: Egypt witnessed its first major strike in the 21st century, mostly in the industrial city of Mahalla, over economic grievances.

* 27 March 2010: Mubarak returned to Egypt after three weeks recovering from gallbladder surgery in Germany.

Heidelberg hospital in Heidelberg
(FILES) A file handout photo released on March 16, 2010 shows Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (C) talking to German doctors Professor Markus Buechler (L), Director of the Surgical University Hospital Heidelberg, and Professor Eike Martin, Director of the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care at Heidelberg University Hospital, at the University of Heidelberg hospital in Heidelberg. (AFP)

* 11 February 2011: Mubarak was ousted following popular protests that broke on 25 January 2011. The uprising resulted in the deaths of 846 people, according to official numbers, and the injury of thousands across the country.

2011
FILE PHOTO: An anti-government protester defaces a picture of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak in Alexandria, 230 km (140 miles) north of Cairo, January 25, 2011. (Reuters)

* 13 April 2011: Mubarak and his sons Alaa and Gamal were arrested by Egyptian authorities pending investigations into charges of corruption and the killing of protesters.

Alaa and Gamal
L to R) Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, sons of former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak, sit inside the defendants' cage at the Police Academy courthouse in Cairo. (AFP)

* 3 August 2011: The trial of Mubarak and his sons started in Cairo, with the media dubbing it "the trial of the century." The ousted president denied all the charges against him during trial.

trial
E - In this Sept. 7, 2011 file photo, former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak lies on a gurney bed while being taken to the courtroom for another session of his trial in Cairo, Egypt. (AP)

* 2 June 2012: Mubarak was sentenced to life in prison in a first degree court ruling.

* 9 May 2015: Mubarak and his sons Gamal and Alaa were found guilty of corruption and embezzling public funds, and were sentenced to three years in prison and fined a total of EGP 125 million. They were also required to pay an additional EGP 21 million to the state.

* 9 January 2016: A final appeal against the conviction for embezzlement was rejected, making Mubarak the first Egyptian president ever convicted of corruption.

* 2 March 2017: Egypt's Court of Cassation acquitted Mubarak for conspiring to kill protesters during the 2011 uprising, and he was released on 24 March.

* 22 September 2018: The Court of Cassation rejected Mubarak's appeal in the so-called ‘presidential palace case’ making the conviction of corruption final.

* In October 2019: Mubarak's family released a video of him on YouTube speaking about his role as the commander of the Egyptian Air Forces during the 1973 war.

* In January 2020: Mubarak underwent critical surgery.  

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