Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi reshuffled his Cabinet on Thursday, in the first such move since he took office in June 2014.
Amongst the key ministers replaced in the new cabinet is the powerful interior minister, in charge of the country's police, along with five other ministers.
The presidency also introduced two new cabinet portfolios: a ministry of state for population and another for technical education, bringing the total number of new ministers in the government to eight.
All the new ministers were sworn in by El-Sisi on Thursday, the presidency said.
The following are brief biographies of the newly-appointed ministers:
1. Minister of Interior – Magdy Abdel Ghafar
Magdi Abdel-Ghaffar was the first appointed head of the National Security Apparatus after the 25 January revolution. Abdel Ghafar retired after reaching the legal age of retirement in July 2011.The newly appointed minister, in his early 60's, has previously acknowledged that the regime of long-autocrat Hosni Mubarak committed "violations" against Egyptians. He has also stressed that the National Security Apparatus is one of the 25 of January revolution gains; and that it will always work for the service of the people.
After earning his degree from the police academy in 1974, Abdel Ghafar joined the state security's investigations. He was born in Egypt's Menoufiya governorate.
He is replacing Mohamed Ibrahim as the minister of interior.
2. Minister of Toursim – Khaled Ramy
Despite graduating from the faculty of engineering, Cairo University in 1981 and working as an architect for several years, minister Khaled Ramy started his career in the tourism sector in Egypt in 1987 when he passed the tourist guides' exam in Egypt's ministry of tourism in 1989.
As a tour guide he worked in several local and foreign tour companies in Egypt before he became a tourism attaché in the Egyptian embassy in Vienna.
In 1999 he was appointed as a supervisor in the technical office of former minister of tourism Mamdouh El-Beltagy. In 2004 he was appointed as the head of the technical office of the minister of tourism.
Later he was appointed as the head of Egypt's tourism authority office in London until 2012.
He served as an adviser of e-marketing to the head of tourism authority since 2012.
This is the first time a minister of tourism has been chosen from Egypt's tourism authority.
Khaled Rami is replacing Hisham Zazou as minister of tourism
3. Minister of Communication – Khaled Ali Negm
Negm was the head of Egypt's Post Authority since August 2014 before being appointed as the new communication minister on Thursday by Egyptian president El-Sisi.
He has also worked as a technical director for IBM in Egypt and the Middle East.
He earned his degree from Ain Shams University in 1983 in physics and a PHD also from Ain Shams University in elementary particle physics theories in 1994.
Khaled Negm is replacing Atef Helmi as minister of communication.
4. Minister of Technical Education and Teaching - Mohamed Youssef
Youssef worked as the deputy to the minister of education and the head of the technical education sector in the ministry since June 2014.
He has previously worked as director of the roads and bridges department at the Arab Contractors Company.
He was appointed by prime minister Ibrahem Mahlab to supervise the technical training at the education ministry since June 2014.
Youssef earned his engineering bachelor's degree from Cairo University in 1990.
He obtained his masters degree in management from London in 1998.
5. Minister of Education – Moheb El-Rafeey
The new minister of education Mohab El-Rafeey was the executive chairman of the adult education authority in Egypt.
Graduating from the faculty of education, University of Zagzig in 1981, El-Rafaei was professor of environmental education and media in the environmental studies and researches institute at Ain Shams University.
Mohab El-Rafeey is a member in the Egyptian Council for Curriculum & Instruction that aims to improve the Egyptian educational curriculum.
Mohab El-Rafeey is replacing Mahmoud Abu El-Nasr as minister of education.
6. Minister of Agriculture- Salah El-Din Mahmoud
59-years-old Salah El-Din Helal worked as the head of the agriculture ministry office since July 2013.
He also worked in the ministry as the head of the central administration of the stations of agricultural research center in May 2011.
He earned his bachelor degree from Al-Azhar agricultural University in 1982.
Salah El-Din Helal is replacing Adel El-Beltagy as minister of agriculture.
7. Minister of Culture – Abdel Wahed Al-Nabawy
New minister of culture Abdel Wahad Al-Nabawy was the head of Egypt's National Library and Archives since September 2010.
During the term of toppled Islamist president Mohamed Morsi, the professor of history at the University of Al-Azhar was dismissed from his position shortly after but returned back when Morsi was ousted in July 2013.
Dr. Al-Nabawy used to be the professor of contemporary history in the University of Qatar from 2008 to 2010.
Abdel Wahad Al-Nabawy is replacing Gaber Asfour as the minister of culture.
8. Minister of Population – Hala Youssef
The new minister of population Hala Youssef graduated from the faculty of medicine "Kasr Al-Aini", Cairo University in 1985 and then joined the academic staff. She has also been the professor of public health in the faculty of medicine, Cairo University since 2007.
Dr. Hala Youssef has been the coordinator of the national population council. An active member in the African Reproductive Health Research Network (ReproNet Africa), Youssef was the network’s vice chairman from 2005 to 2011.
She has also been a member of Egypt's delegation in the meetings of the UN's Commission on population and development in 2014.