Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi has issued a decree that mandates prison sentences for anyone who leaks confidential school exam papers.
The decree, published in the Egyptian Gazette on 7 October, stipulates that whoever prints or publishes exam questions and answers shall be imprisoned for a period not less than one year and shall pay a fine of between LE20,000 and 50,000.
Egyptian public school pupils take a series of standardised tests in their final years of school, known as the thanaweya amma. Test scores largely determine university placement.
Copies of the Arabic exam paper have been leaked online in previous years and widely shared on social media pages. Education ministry officials have condemned the leakages.