President Vladimir Putin and President Abdel-Fatah El-Sisi began their summit meeting in the Russian city of Sochi on Wednesday morning.
The meeting comes ahead of the opening of the Russia-Africa forum which brings together more than 40 African leaders.
The talks will discuss means of boosting bilateral relations between the two nations at all levels, presidential spokesman Bassam Radi said.
El-Sisi is due to hold bilateral meetings with a number of African leaders on the sidelines of the summit, which runs for two days.
He will also attend the launching of the Russia-Africa economic forum which is aimed at developing trade cooperation and economic relations between Russia and African countries, the spokesman said.
The two-day Russia-Africa summit in the Black Sea port city of Sochi is the first gathering of its kind and is designed to bolster ties between Africa and Russia.