One protester died and 51 were injured during street violence on Tuesday's second anniversary of the Mohamed Mahmoud Street clashes.
Ambulance authority head Ahmed El-Ansari said the unnamed man was shot in the head with birdshot near Tahrir Square and was transferred to Qasr Al-Aini hospital where he died.
The interior ministry said the dead man was aged 20.
Several thousand protesters opposed to both the military and the Muslim Brotherhood gathered on Tuesday in Cairo's Tahrir Square for the second anniversary of the Mohamed Mahmoud Street clashes.
The clashes in November 2011, which pitted anti-military protesters against security forces, lasted for six days and left 47 dead and at least 3,000 injured.
In the evening, dozens of the protesters clashed with police deployed at the nearby Arab League headquarters until security forces used teargas to disperse the crowd. The clashes followed a day of largely peaceful protests in the vicinity of Tahrir Square.
At least 51 were injured nationwide, according El-Ansari. Clashes broke out in Daqahliya, Damietta and Alexandria.
The injuries were mostly bruises, breathing difficulties, and birdshot wounds, he added.