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Wednesday, 18 September 2019

Israel-Egypt: Peace treaty not peace

On the 35th anniversary of the signing of the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty, Ahram Online explores relations between the two countries in recent years

Dina Ezzat, Friday 28 Mar 2014
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A photo of a previous Egypt-Israel pipeline explosion in Sinai (Photo: Ahram)
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An independent economic source, who asked to remain anonymous, told Ahram Online this week that as part of a plan to deal with severe energy shortages, “which might lead to electricity cuts of over five hours a day across the nation during the summer,” the authorities are considering all options, not excluding the import of natural gas from Israel “at a price that could probably be much higher than that Israel was charged when it imported gas from Egypt.”

A government source declined to confirm the news but said that no decision would be taken on the matter “most probably” before the inauguration of a new president this summer.

The export of natural gas from Israel constitutes another element of otherwise stable but limited Egyptian-Israeli trade and economic cooperation.

Trade and economic cooperation have been generally the most stable factor of the bilateral relations between Cairo and Tel Aviv which were was established 35 years ago when Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin signed the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty in March 1979.

Trade between the two countries dropped somewhat after the ouster of president Hosni Mubarak in 2011, but government officials in Cairo say that this drop is possibly incidental.

“Cooperation in natural gas has been very stable for many years despite the suspension and trade dispute that occurred after the 25 January Revolution removed Mubarak -- but this is the case with trade cooperation in general, limited and stable,” said a government official.

Trade cooperation between Egypt and Israel has been generally focused on the textile industry -- with Egypt, Israel and the US being members of the Qualified Industrial Zone that allows Egyptian products that have an Israeli component free access to the US market.

Other than this there has been a generally stable export-import cooperation of a limited list of commodities that are generally integrated into non-Israeli commodities before they find their way to the Egyptian market.

“It is very unfortunate that we cannot be pragmatic and say this particular country has good quality and inexpensive commodities and we are going to import from it because it is in our interest; after all these years an Israeli commodity on say the shelf of a supermarket would not be picked up except by a few people -- if we assume that any supermarket would at all dare to carry, say, Israeli fruit juice,” said a member of the Egyptian business community who has been doing business with Israel.

Like the vast majority of Egyptian entrepreneurs who cooperate with Israeli counterparts, the businessman insists on being anonymous and on keeping a low profile for fear of being “stigmatised as dealing with the enemy.”

“I really don’t understand; we have a peace deal and we cannot do business, it has been 35 years since this peace treaty was signed and still it is a big issue if someone said let us do business with Israel or let us benefit of their agricultural expertise,” he said.

Under the 30-year rule of Mubarak, who came to power after Sadat was assassinated in 1981, as a result of his signing of the peace treaty with Israel, trade and agricultural cooperation with Israel were matched by security and political cooperation.

The security cooperation went way beyond the three annual coordination meetings between the two sides to include intensive intelligence cooperation especially during the last few years of the Mubarak rule with political-militant Islamist groups, especially Hamas and Hezbollah, being the target of this cooperation.

“I clearly remember that during the 2006 Israeli attack on Lebanon there was top intelligence information regarding Hezbollah going from Cairo and from other Arab capitals to Israeli counterparts, with the hope that Israel would fully eliminate Hezbollah, which was perceived as an adversary by Cairo due to its ties with both Tehran and Damascus that were antagonising Egypt,” said a retired Egyptian diplomat who was in service at the time.

This testimony is seconded by a US diplomat who attended part of the talks conducted by top Egyptian officials with counterparts from the US in Washington at the time. He argued that for Egypt Hezbollah and to a lesser degree Hamas, Israel’s worst enemies, were also enemies and “the two countries cooperated” against both. This cooperation, according to the account of all concerned sides, was also very present in the winter of 2009 during operation Cast Lead, one of the most horrifying Israeli aggressions against Palestinians in Gaza.

This said, Egyptian diplomatic and intelligence sources say that for Egypt, including for Mubarak himself, Israel was also an enemy.

“Mubarak received Israeli officials regularly and he encouraged business relations to an extent and he cooperated when it came to the containment of Hamas and Hezbollah and also Iran, but he was clear that Israel was the number one enemy for Egypt; this was the military creed all through his rule,” said a former minister who served under Mubarak.

She added: “Mubarak was a realistic man; he was aware that Egypt is in need of stable relations with Israel and he was willing to use these relations to encourage some sort of a peace deal between Palestinians and Israelis because he knew that it was impossible to do things otherwise.”

During the rule of Mubarak Egyptian intelligence passed information on Hezbollah to Israel and was following up on any unchecked communication between Egyptians and Israelis. And, said a retired senior intelligence officer, “all those who had direct relations with Israelis at all levels including intelligence officers, militaries and diplomats were subject to firm scrutiny.”

Indeed, during the rule of Mubarak several Egyptians and Israelis were arrested and tried for espionage -- with the case of Arab-Israeli Azzam Azzam being the most famous in the 1990s.

“Every single Israeli and American official asked for Azzam to be released and Mubarak was very stubborn about it and he only allowed it when he thought he could get something in return,” said the intelligence officer.

Moreover, he added, Mubarak, “who was always trying to curry favour with the US through the Israeli gate – sometimes to spare himself from criticism on human rights” was not willing to do anything to end the state of what Israelis have always complained was “ a cold peace” , given that it never parted form the strict confines of official relations and some officially monitored business relations.

“It was no secret that there was nobody in the country from Mubarak down who encouraged any cultural cooperation for example, and when the Israelis nagged about it, he would always tell them that the people are angry with Israel because of what Israel is doing to the Palestinians,” said the former minister. She added that Mubarak might not have cared very much about the Palestinians “but he was certainly aware of the Egyptian apprehension towards Israel despite the long years of peace -- but it has been long years of a peace treaty and not of peace really.”

So while Egypt was observing its treaty obligations of not airing films or songs that were produced during the years of Egyptian-Israeli war and were considered to promote anti-Israeli hostility, the culture ministry was very firm in declining Israeli participation in regional or international events that it organised -- despite the repeated attempts on the Israeli side.

At the same time, Egyptian intelligence was involved in supporting the production of TV series reflecting on the history of Israeli occupation of Egyptian and other Arab territories. One of the most famous soap operas of the 1990s, Raafat Elhaggan, was produced with intelligence support, and is based on the true story of an Egyptian spy who was based in Israel.

The intelligence services were behind similar other productions as well. “We never thought that the generation born after the end of the wars with Israel should grow up to think that Israel is just like any other country; we wanted to live in peaceful neighbourly relations but we did not want to forget history, even though we thought we should move on,” said the intelligence source.

While moving on, Egypt was keeping a very close eye on hostile Israeli schemes against Egypt. “We carefully monitored Israeli expansion in East Africa, especially across the Nile Basin countries, and we monitored the Israeli encouragement of Ethiopia to start building the Renaissance Dam. Now we are stuck with the shortage it is going to cost us in terms of our annual share of the Nile water,” said an Egyptian diplomat who followed Egyptian-African relations.

According to this diplomat, the fact that the Mubarak regime failed to react promptly on the matter had to do with the decaying capacity of the ageing and ailing president rather than “any assumed wish to accommodate Israel”. “We did accommodate Israel in some things but certainly not on national security matters,” he added.

According to the account of several diplomats, intelligence and military sources, the worst part of the Egyptian-Israeli treaty has to do with the security arrangements that significantly undermined the Egyptian presence in Sinai in what eventually turned the peninsula into a hub for drug and human trafficking as well as militant activities.

In this too they also blame the reluctant will of the Mubarak regime to pursue serious development in Sinai, beyond the limited but successful tourism infrastructure in southern Sinai.

“Obviously, we lacked the resources to do it, but I also think we lacked the political will to do it; there are so many projects that could have been done across Sinai to serve the interest of the people who live there, but Mubarak was always reluctant -- partially I think because he did not want to start any projects that could be subject to debate with Israel,” said another former minister of the Mubarak regime.

“Mubarak wanted to keep relations with Israel at certain confines and to stick to these confines he went too far, I think, in avoiding any tampering with the status quo of Sinai -- which is very unfortunate,” he said.

During the three years that followed the Mubarak era, Israel got to see that in the collective Egyptian consciousness, it remains the enemy. Israeli diplomats in Cairo, who had often complained volumes over their isolation, were shocked, to quote what they shared with Cairo-based European diplomats, to see the public rejoice when months after the ouster of Mubarak a young man found his way to the tenth floor Giza apartment where they were based, and tore down the Israeli flag. Today, the Israeli diplomatic mission operates from unpublicised venues and at a smaller than average capacity, especially now that the exchange of official visits at a high level has been halted.

“This is the case despite the business as usual regarding the security cooperation and despite lots of direct communication over the increase in Egyptian forces and arms and military equipment in Sinai, way beyond the limitations of the peace treaty,” said an Egyptian diplomat.

This diplomat excluded any serious chance for the peace treaty to be re-visited anytime soon with the objective of rectifying the security arrangements. “The Israelis have no reason to accept it and we have no leverage to force it,” he stated.

For the near future, nobody is expecting any serious changes in the profile of Egyptian-Israeli relations: a cold peace that is executed essentially at the official level and that fails to get Egyptians, even those who were born after the peace treaty was signed in 1979, to think of Israel as anything but an enemy state with which Egypt has a peace deal.

“They think because the history curricula in school does not refer to the horrors that Israel did to us in the years before the treaty and that it is still doing to the Palestinians that we will think of Israel as we think of any other state -- well, no, we don’t think of Israel as anything but a hostile state,” said Sarah, a 21 year-old Egyptian who graduated last year from the law department at Cairo University. “Israel is built on the stolen land and broken lives of Palestinians; it is the enemy,” she said.

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Israeli, Tel Aviv
01-04-2014 09:57am
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Lack of cooperation gives rise to strong competition
Israel and Egypt could not escape the fact that they are living in the same geographical region. Less cooperation will lead Israel and Egypt to a position of fierce competition. This is how economy works. The Dam in Ethiopia is only one example for that. It is also true for Israel's and Egypt's energy sectors, sea transportation, tourism, agriculture or regional politics. It is the interest of Egypt and Israel to have a relationship of cooperation and not a cold war relation of competition.
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6



Steve Gilbert
31-03-2014 06:19pm
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Sad state of Egyptian Affairs
Could Sadat have guided Egypt into the modern era replete with civil rights and economic prosperity? Sadly we'll never know. The promise of Egypt as potentially the enlightened leader of the Arab world and the one to find the balance between modernity and Islam, is gone with the Peace Treaty the only remaining vestige. Yet the ultimate goal of the Peace Treaty, normalization of relations has never been realized. The Arab world is the poorer for it, even the Palestinians, who with Egypts influence might have found their way to a satisfactory settlement with Israel. Now the crazies of the Arab world have the upper hand.
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5



Wawi
30-03-2014 08:09pm
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Artist
I am reading the Cairo Trilogy, by Naguib Mafouz, a great Egyptian writer and a good man. Sadly the government run writer's union did not agree with his travelling to Israel. Mafouz was a man of peace, who believed that artists should be free to meet with other artists no matter where they create. Mafouz who was 80 years old at them time, was beaten close to death, by thugs, on his return from Israel. Many claim that this led to the elderly writer's death. It is both in Israel's and Egypt's interest to come to a warm peace, who knows this may even lead to warmer relations between the Israelis and the Palestinians. Hate is much to easy, and gives power to those who benefit from its madness. Peace means realizing who you are, and opening up to others.
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4



Sayad, Alex
30-03-2014 05:32pm
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Urgent care
Yes, the Egypt-Israel treaty needs urgent careand major changes to address security of Sinai, economic and political new landscape. Israel made a mess out of Gaza by sudden withdrawal that allowed Criminal Hamas to take over.
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3



Abou Ali Battal Agha
30-03-2014 12:58pm
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Egypt - Irael Peace Treaty
Completely crazy thhe fact that even after 35 years young Egyptian continue to be brainwashed by the absurdities of Israel treatment of Palestinians. The reality in fact is that these very Palestinians even those in Gaza are faring much better than the majority of the Egyptians. So, I believe it. Is time to review all this approach and really turn a new page for the sake of theEgyptian people and Egypt.
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Fatah Isma-eel, Port Said
29-03-2014 05:49pm
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Needs Urgent Care
Talking about economic development is premature now until Israel take its full responsibilities. Israel must first correct its past mistakes in Gaza; before we can negotiate new rules to accommodate the new realities.
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Joseph Australia
06-04-2014 02:59am
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Don't repeat Egyptian mistakes now
I am a wealthy Australian Jewish Entreprenurer from Iraq, born in India. I speak Urdu, Hebrew and Arabic fluently. I moved to Eilat for 2 years, US $1 million to set up companies that would employ around 10,000 poor Jordanians exporting to America. When the Imam heard about it, he almost had me killed because I was Jewish and I escaped just in time. The only losers being those still unemployed $10,000 Jordanians. Holding to the Palestinian cause in the Arab street, has made all Arab dictators opress their own people far worse than the Pals. When will the Arab street learn that you have been used. Israeli GDP double over the last 10 years. Without Israel helping you guys, your lack of electricity will go from 4 hours to 8 hours a day. Egypt needs 3 billion each month just to survive. Is this what you and other Egyptians want for your family?
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Ahmed M Ibrahim
29-03-2014 11:23am
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Supply of natural gas
To quote a 21 year old student to emphasize a point is absurdity of the highest order. Mubarak had vision as President and was wise enough to supply the much needed natural gas to Israel which was opposed so intensively after his fall and eventually discontinued. A friend in need was a friend indeed. Mubarak was no enemy of Israel nor Israel is enemy of Egypt. However the tables have turned today. The Almighty has blessed Israel with enough natural gas for domestic consumption as well as exports, while the condition of Egypt under the fanatic regime has worsened to an extent that it is forced to import natural gas from various sources. What happened to the pipeline which Egypt was building through Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey to supply gas to European countries. This is the end result of tampering with a country's security and stability. If Egypt has not learnt a lesson so far, it is bound to face many such difficulties in the future.
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Ali
29-03-2014 08:45pm
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Egypt does have resource
what Egypt does not have a honest and hard working leader. Israeli is blessed with leaders who love their country and their people.
Horas, Egypt
29-03-2014 03:56pm
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I agree
Egypt delimma is the result of idiocracy about every aspect of life.
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