Several public transport buses stayed off the streets in Khartoum and many shops shut Sunday in a mixed response to opposition calls for a nationwide strike against fuel subsidy cuts.
The call for a three-day strike came after the authorities announced a 30-percent hike in petrol and diesel prices that has led to a sharp rise in the cost of other goods, including medicines.
Several key squares and roads in Khartoum and its twin city of Omdurman were deserted on Sunday morning, the start of the working week in the Muslim country, as many public transport buses remained off the streets, AFP correspondents reported.
Schools in Khartoum were open but many parents preferred to keep their children at home fearing clashes between protesters and security forces.
"My son's school urged parents to send only grown up boys. My five-year-old son is at home," Mohamed Khalid, a resident of south Khartoum, told AFP.
The capital's squares were free of the normal traffic jams, while many shops, cafes and restaurants in downtown Khartoum and Omdurman remained shut.
"There are not many people on the roads, which has impacted my business since I opened in the morning," said Ahmad Saleh, an owner of a grocery shop in downtown Omdurman.
Restaurant owners said they had told their workers to prepare less food, anticipating a drop in business.
"There is at least a 40-percent drop in business. My usual customers are other shopkeepers and many of them have closed their shops today," said Ibrahim Mohamed, who runs a restaurant in north Khartoum.
"Some of my workers have also not reported to work today."
However, state employees turned up for work, transported by government buses to their offices.
The authorities are determined to avoid any repetition of 2013 unrest that was sparked by a similar round of fuel subsidy cuts.
It was suppressed only by a deadly crackdown by security forces that drew international condemnation.
Rights groups say that crackdown left about 200 people dead, while the government put the death toll at less than 100.
President Omar al-Bashir's regime has been forced to progressively reduce fuel subsidies since 2011 when South Sudan seceded and took with it nearly three-quarters of the formerly united country's oil reserves.