Malaysia's highest court on Monday dismissed a bid by Christians for the right to use the word "Allah", ending a years-long legal battle that has escalated religious tensions in the Muslim-majority country.
The divisive case, in which the Catholic Church challenged a government ban on its long-time use of the Arabic word to refer to God, came amid concern from minorities who feel their rights are under threat by rising Islamisation in the Southeast Asian nation.
The government had previously banned the use of "Allah" in the local Malay-language edition of the Church's Herald newspaper, which had angered Muslims, who say Christians are overstepping religious boundaries.
A seven-judge panel in the administrative capital Putrajaya ruled a lower court decision siding with the government stood.
"It (the Court of Appeal) applied the correct test, and it is not open for us to interfere," chief justice Arifin Zakaria said.
Analysts termed the ruling a "vote-winner" for the government.
S. Selvarajah, one of the church's lawyers, said his team would explore further ways to challenge the ban.
"It's a blanket ban. Non-Muslims cannot use the word. It has a major impact," he told AFP.
The Herald editor Father Lawrence Andrew said the judgement "didn't touch on the fundamental rights of minorities".
"We are greatly disappointed by this judgement," he said.
Outside the court, which was cordoned off, about a hundred Muslim activists cheered the news of the verdict.
Earlier, they had shouted "Allahu Akbar" or "God is great" and waved banners that read "Uniting to defend the name of Allah".
"I'm very pleased and happy that we have won the case. I hope the issue will be put to rest," Ibrahim Ali, head of Muslim rights group Perkasa, told AFP.
"We must defend 'Allah' because this is our religious obligation. I hope other communities, including Christians, understand this."