World number one Djokovic, three times a semi-finalist in Paris, is the top seed at the French Open with Federer, the 2009 champion, seeded three and Friday's draw pitted them in the same section.
Djokovic starts against Italy's Potito Starace and could face former world number one Lleyton Hewitt in the second round.
Adding spice to the top half of the draw is the presence of dangerous Argentine Juan Martin del Potro, the 2009 US Open winner, who could face Federer in the fourth round.
Federer starts against Germany's Tobias Kamke with David Nalbandian a possible second round foe and Czech Tomas Berdych a potential quarter-final opponent.
Rafael Nadal, the second seed bidding for a record seventh French Open, starts against Italy's Simone Bolelli and has dangerous clay-courters Nicolas Almagro and Juan Monaco also in his quarter of the draw.
The Spaniard could face Serbian eighth seed Janko Tipsarevic in the last eight.
Fourth seed Andy Murray, struggling with a back injury, is Nadal's scheduled semi-final opponent. Murray starts against Japan's Tatsuma Ito.
In the women's draw, top seed Victoria Azarenka begins against Italian Alberta Brianti while world number two Maria Sharapova starts against Alexandra Cadantu of Romania.
Sharapova and 2002 champion Serena Williams are potential quarter-final opponents.
Defending champion Li Na starts against Romania's Sorana Cirstea while Williams begins against France's Virginie Razzano.
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