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Egyptian archaoelogists refute claims by German amateurs on Great Pyramid
Head of ancient Egyptian antiquities explains why he thinks claims by two German amateurs concerning the construction date of the Great Pyramid are wrong
Nevine El-Aref , Wednesday 27 Nov 2013
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The chamber where khufu
The chamber where khufu's cartouche is located

In response to the alleged stealing of samples from the Great Pyramid by two German amateur archaeologists, Egypt's antiquities ministry issued a press release Wednesday discrediting all findings by the German pair.

The archaeologists took a piece of Kufu's cartouche from a small compartment above his burial chamber and smuggled it to Germany for study, the Ancient Egyptian section of the Ministry of State of Antiquities (MSA) reported.

The results announced by the two Germans cast doubt on the construction date of the Great Pyramid and consequently the Pharaoh for which it was built.

The results suggest that the pyramid was built in an era preceding Khufu's reign. It also suggests that the Pyramid is not the burial place for a king but a centre of power.

Mohamed Abdel Maqsoud, head of the ancient Egyptian department, asserted in a press release on Wednesday that a multitude of scientific research from the past two centuries shows that the Great Pyramid belongs to King Khufu, the second king of the fourth dynasty, and that it was built during his reign to be used as his royal burial place for eternity.

A pyramid is not a sole object; it is part of a structural complex connected to each others. This includes the pyramid itself, the funerary temple, the side pyramid, solar boat pits, the ramp and the valley temple, Maqsoud said.

He emphasised that Greek historian Herodotus, who visited Egypt during the fifth century BC, said that the ramp of King Khufu's Pyramid took 20 years of construction work and its walls were painted with scenes from Khufu's era.

The original blocks, many of which bore the King's name, were reused in the construction of the pyramids during the Middle Kingdom in the Lesht and Dahshur areas.

Archaeologist George Raisner discovered the tomb of Khufu's mother, Queen Hetep Heres, to the east of the Great Pyramid, and archaeologist Ferdinand Debono found engravings of King Khufu's at Wadi Hamamat, now displayed in the Egyptian museum in Cairo, Maqsoud added.

The cartouche that the German archaeologists sampled was scrawled in red by the Great Pyramid builders in the 17th year of Khufu's reign.

According to the custom at the time, workers used to write on the walls of the structures they built in order to assert their belonging to an individual or king. Such cartouches were found in the entrance of Khufu's solar boat pit.

Maqsoud asserted scientific evidence shows that the pyramid builders' necropolis was found at the eastern rock of the Giza Plateau in 1990, and that each tomb contains details of its owner and his job description, as well as his or her skeleton and funerary collection.

"The most important archaeological evidence that Khufu is the king that built the Great Pyramid is the discovery carried out in 2012 by French archaeologist Pierre Tallet in a rock cave at Wadi Al-Jarff area, two kilometres south of Zaafarana, on the Red Sea," Maqsoud concluded.

He added that Tallet found a collection of papyri dated to the reign of King Khufu mentioning the number of workers, artisans and boats that were used to transport the pyramid's blocks to the Giza plateau.

According to studies carried out by the French mission, these papyri were part of the diary of an engineer who was involved in the construction of the Great Pyramid.

The papyri also show the engineer's working plan and a description of the way the ancient Egyptians transported the blocks.

German archaeologist Rudolf Cooper also uncovered graffiti in the Western Desert at the Dakhla oasis revealing that Khufu and his son Djedef Re sent missions to import colours and oxides for decorating the Pyramid's inner walls.

Ahmed Saeed, professor of ancient Egyptian civilization at Cairo University, supports Abdel Maqsoud, saying that what the German amateurs have claimed is totally false and nonsensical.

He elaborates on the writing of the King's name in graffiti, maintaining it could have been written by the pyramid builders after construction, which might also explain why the king's short name and not his official title is inscribed.

Alternatively, he suggests the cartouche could have been written during the Middle Kingdom era, due to the style of writing used.

He said that graffiti left by visitors on the walls of monuments have helped Egyptologists to know the short names of several kings that they otherwise wouldn't have known, among them Djoser. New Kingdom graffiti left on the walls of the monuments at Saqqara revealed that King Nesri-Khet was in fact Djoser.





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15



ann
02-12-2013 03:19pm
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So where is the beef?
So what ARE the results from the study done by the 2 German amateurs? Difficult to make a claim like this without showing any proof. What did they find that makes them think that Khufu's pyramid was a source of power, etc? I sure hope Egypt bans these amateurs from entering Egypt, at least ban them for stealing antiquities and smuggling. And how were they able to get into the chamber above Khufu's burial, if that area is off-limits? I hope Egypt will be able to recover this artifact. But then again, the Germans still have Nefertiti's bust, don't they?
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Sam Enslow
05-12-2013 11:58am
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"Evidence of no value"
Test results are of no value because there will no "chain of evidence". How is one to know from where the tested samples orginated? I would think anyone whose "ethics" allowed stealing would not be adverse to tampering with evidence. If everyone with a theory about the Pyramids took a sample to test, they would soon be represented by a hole in the ground. There is NO justification for this theft.
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Bill Cornelius
01-12-2013 09:58pm
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Assuming further tests do correlate the german finding
The father of Kufu could have put materials aside for his sons pyramid and marked them w/ his name. However he might not have known what it would be at that time, I don't know the process for choosing the name of a Pharaoh. I doubt the power center story, it's part of new age urban legends that include ancient astronauts.
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13



Mark Stewart
01-12-2013 09:36pm
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It is time to revisit some of these beliefs
The fact that the Great Pyramid was always assume to be Khufu was never supported by a lot of facts. It would be nice if someone would write a paper laying out new data to fully support the original thesis. BTW the facts in the article supports pyramid building not specifically the building of the Great Pyramid. It would have being better is they gave facts that directly tied Khufu to the building of the Great Pyramid.
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Mr. Wilgro
30-11-2013 06:42pm
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Don't trust the Egyptian caretakers
It's important to understand that the underlying reason that adventurers and early Egyptologists were so interested in Giza was because they were looking to verify what was written in the Bible (OT). These days, the Egyptians in control of the pyramids, continue to defend the position of the country who claims that the theories that challenge the mainstream are somehow part of a racist conspiracy to dishonor the history of the Egyptian people. Rubbish. First, the word 'Egypt' is Greek. The Old Kingdom did not call themselves Egyptians. They were the Land of Khemet, which refers to 'black people'. Yes, there is racism going on here, but it isn't part of the agenda of those offering alternate explanation to the writings of Herodotus, which were scribed some 2000 years after the proposed construction period. Add to this the geological evidence that certainly would point to a much earlier date for the carving of the Sphinx and the construction of the temples in front of the Sphinx, and there would see to be plenty of reason to question the mainstream theories. There is considerably more evidence that what guys like Zahi and his buddies are doing is keeping the general public away from the greater truths about these ancient people. I don't trust them and I never will.
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Glen Parry
01-12-2013 01:37pm
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Sorry, but your Egyptian is incorrect
Kmt; transcribed into modern Latin script as Kemet, not Khemet, actualy translates as "The Black Land", and differentiates the fertile Nile Valley & Delta fron dshrt (deshret), which refers to, "The Red Land", of the surrounding deserts. It has absolutely nothing to do with the colour of the inhabitants of Ancient Egypt, for whom all the evidence; artistic, textual, mummified bodies and DNA sampling, indicates are, pretty much, exactly the same as the population living there today.
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Dr. Hossam M.K. Aboulfotouh
30-11-2013 04:52pm
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The last and valuable sample will never be stolen.
As I have hastily said elsewhere online, the inscriptions inside the Great Pyramid are not only what were found in the five chambers above the king's chamber. Some inscriptions were also found lately by Dr. Hawass and his team, after the door, at the end of the northern shaft of the so-called the queen's chamber; and no one can claim they are not from the days of constructing the Great Pyramid. One scholar suggested it is numeric hieratic notation, but my background in hieratic notations do not confirm it. Inside the five chambers, the inscriptions are haphazardly scattered on stones and some texts appear upside down, implying they were written on stones before construction. Besides, the upper parts of three of the letters that follow the cartouche of Cheops, starting from "S" and heading to the left-side of the text, precisely match what is found at the end of the shaft of the queen's chamber; saying to any skeptic anonymous: we "the ancient Egyptian builders" have written the name of our great king “Cheops” on the (hidden) faces of the stones of his pyramidal horizon, and one of these (hidden) faces is at the end of that shaft that is impossible to reach it by your hand and do so like us after its construction. In short, using any scientific method for dating the graffiti on stones in any laboratory, the results of dating the inscriptions inside the five chambers will never be different from dating the few inscriptions inside the small chamber at the end of the northern shaft of the so-called the queen's chamber; and any lab-result that excludes testing a sample from the latter will be of no value. And now, for sure, these skeptics will never be able to steal the last and valuable sample.
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10



vosstech
30-11-2013 12:03pm
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Not buying into the hype?
I find it rather odd that such great efforts of advanced abilities would have built these for a mere tomb, and nothing else. reminds me of what Sagan said about all of the galaxies out there and if we are the only intelligent species among them, it sure would be an awful waste of space!
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Douglas M Adams
30-11-2013 09:27am
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HOWARD VYSE
Is this the same cartouche found by by ancestor Howard Vyse? I don't that this cartouche was faked to keep the financing of his exploration going. All modern Egyptology follows this finding and is most certainly wrong.
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Branko
30-11-2013 03:15am
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Where are the results?
It would be interesting to know and see the results of the amateur archaeologists. Plus an unhibited view of the engineer's papyrus. Disclaiming facts or evidence merely on the basis of heresay or being an 'amatuer' is in itself quite unscientific. I have studied Egyptology for a number of years but was utterly dismayed at the pettty minded asinine squabbling and demur of so many 'academic' Egyptologists amongst themselves. Their malign deprecation and diffidence towards alternative thinking, research and findings is utterly preposterous.
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Sam Enslow
05-12-2013 12:06pm
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To have some fun...
If you want to watch the collective heads of Egyptian archaeologists explode, just mention Immanuel Velikovsky. Students in Egypt memorize what their teachers say. Orthodoxy reigns. However, this in no way validates stealing materials from Egypt's monuments. For another fuss, look at Siwa Oasis and the claims that a tomb of Alexander was found there. Is it? I do not know, but it is possible a secondary burial happened after his body disappeared from Alexandria. In ancient times many kings had their bodies moved to protect them - without their associated treasures.
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Scott Zema
29-11-2013 03:34am
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Jean Paul-Houdin Theory
do the engineer's papyri found shed any light on the internal structure of the pyramid? any secret passages or rooms?
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6



Koolz
28-11-2013 09:06pm
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Powers that Be Lie about History
Egypt did not build the Great Pyramids the same people that built them built all the structures around the world including the Bosnia Pyramids. These Structures date past 30,000 years. A civilization that existed across the world having to do with the stars and sacred geometry. Atlantis?
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