Sherif prevailed in straight sets, facing little resistance from Kostyuk in a 6-3, 7-5 win.
She will now face Slovenian Tamara Zidansek in the Roland Garros second round on Thursday after the 25th-seed defeated American Claire Liu 6-2, 6-2.
Sherif reached unprecedented heights for an Egyptian female tennis player with a series of achievements over the past couple of years.
Last year, she became the first Egyptian woman to win a Grand Slam main-round game after defeating France's Chloe Paquet in the Australian Open first round, only to lose in the second against Slovenia's Kaja Juvan.
The 26-year-old also qualified for her first ever U.S Open as a lucky loser and became the first Egyptian female player to take part in the Olympics, bidding an early farewell after losing the first-round match to Sweden's Rebecca Peterson in Tokyo.
Earlier this month, Sherif reached a career-high position in the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) rankings, moving up to the 50th after winning the Liqui Moly Open in Karlsruhe, Germany.
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