Sherif, world-ranked 54th, won her first-round match in straight sets against American Madison Brengle but struggled against 25th-ranked Potapova.
Sherif won the first set but Potapova dominated the second and third sets to win the match.
Potapova advances to the French Open's third round and will face the winner of the match between No. 15 seed Liudmila Samsonova and Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova.
Sherif reached the quarterfinals of the Madrid Open, defeating No. 30 Camila Giorgi and No. 5 Caroline Garcia before losing to world No. 2 Aryna Sabalenka, demonstrating her potential.
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