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Saturday, 15 May 2021

Mubarak's historic trial for murder and corruption: A timeline

Egypt's ousted president will within hours hear the verdict of his trial on charges of ordering the killing of protesters and profiteering. Ahram Online looks at the steps that brought us to this landmark day

Zeinab El Gundy , Saturday 2 Jun 2012
A photo of ousted President Hosni Mubarak and sons Gamal and Alaa (Photo: Reuters)

11 February 2011

Former vice president Omar Suleiman announces that Hosni Mubarak has resigned as president of Egypt. 
12 February 2011
Public Prosecutor Abdel Magid Mahmoud receives reports accusing Mubarak and his family of financial corruption and illicit profiteering.
4 March 2011
Public Prosecutor takes receipt of hundreds of reports regarding the killing of protesters during 2011's 18-day uprising.
6 April 2011
"Mubarak and his family are not above the law or criminal accountability," the Public Prosecutor says in a statement.
10 April 2011
The ex-president presents an audio message to the Egyptian people, aired on the Al Arabiya TV channel, where he claims his innocence regarding allegations of corruption.
13 April 2011
Prosecution begins investigation into the alleged involvement of Hosni Mubarak and his sons, Alaa and Gamal, into ordering the killing of protesters during the 25 January uprising, as well as on graft charges.
Mubarak is transferred to Sharm El-Sheikh hospital on the same day after falling sick. The public prosecutor orders the detention of the former president for 15 days pending investigations. The prosecution will subsequently interrogate Mubarak and his family in Sharm El-Sheikh, citing security reasons. 
22 April 2011
Public Prosecutor orders Mubarak’s detention for a further 15 days pending investigations.
23 May 2011
The Mubarak cases regarding alleged financial corruption and ordering the killing of protesters are referred to Criminal Court.
28 July 2011
Minister of Justice Abdel Aziz El Gendy announces the Mubarak trial will be begin at the Cairo exhibition centre in Nasr City on 3 August 2011. 
31 July 2011
It's announced that Mubarak's trial will be transferred in Nasr City to the Police Academy in New Cairo, on the outskirts of the capital, for security reasons. 
3 August 2011: Session No.1
The trial of Mubarak begins with massive domestic and international media coverage, described as 'The Trial of the Century in Egypt'. It is the first time an Arab former president is brought to justice and stands trial in front of his own people in proceedings that are aired live on television. Mubarak is wheeled into the court on a gurney and joins his co-defendants in a cage in the courtroom.
Families of protesters killed in the uprising and supporters of the revolution clash outside the Police Academy.
Mubarak is facing two lawsuits; the first for ordering the killing of protesters, in which he is co-accused with former minister of interior Habib El-Adly and six of his aides.
The second case regards his alleged acceptance of bribes from fugitive Egyptian businessman Hussein Salem, with his sons, Gamal and Alaa Mubarak, facing the same charges. Hundreds of civil claims lawyers attend the first session, resulting in chaotic and impassioned scenes.
4 August 2011: Session No.2
The criminal court, headed by judge Ahmed Refaat, begins to view the evidence presented by the prosecution in the case of killing protesters. The court decides to adjourn the case to 14 August so the defence team can review the evidence.
14 August 2011: Session No.3
The court adjourns the case of ordering the killing of protesters to 5 September after a tense session that was suspended four times due to disorder in the courtroom. 
15 August 2011: Session No.4
Mubarak supporters again clash with families of slain protesters outside the courthouse.
Judge Ahmed Refaat orders the televised broadcast of the trial be stopped, and that the cases against Mubarak and Habib El-Adly for ordering the killing of protesters be combined into one. The trial is adjourned until 5 September. 
5-6 September 2011: Sessions No.5-6
The court hears the testimonies of senior police figures as well as protester eye-witnesses. Clashes between Mubarak supporters and protesters' families erupt again outside the court. 
6 September 2011: Session No.7
The court summons, among others, Field Marshal Tantawi, head of the ruling military and current minister of defence, General Sami Anan, chief of staff and Omar Suleiman, former vice-president and ex-head of intelligence, to listen to their testimonies. A media gag order was issued for security reasons. 
8 September 2011: Session No.8
Court continues to listen to eyewitness testimonies, including that of police officer Essam Shawky who says they were orders to use excessive force against protesters. 
11 September 2011: Session No.9
Court decides to adjourn a hearing in which Tantawi and Anan are participating due to security reasons. The civilian court has to present a request to the military prosecution in order to take testimonies from army personnel.
13 September 2011: Session No.10
Former vice-president Omar Suleiman testifies before the court.
14 September 2011: Session No.11
Former minister of interior Mansour El-Eissawy testifies in front of the court. 
15 September 2011: Session No.12
Hosni Mubarak defends himself before the court, claiming that as president he could not issue an order to kill protesters. Former minister of interior Mahmoud Wagdy testifies. 
17 September 2011: Session No.13
The court watches video clips of clashes between security forces and protesters during the 18-day uprising.
18 September 2011: Session No.14
Court views video footage of clashes made by General Intelligence, creating controversy as only events from 1 to 3 February on Tahrir Square were recorded while those from 25 to 31 January were erased.
24 September 2011: Session No.15
Field Marshal Tantawi testifies before the court in a closed session. Civil claims lawyers are not allowed to question the head of SCAF, prompting one to sue the court and demand the panel of judges be changed.
30 October 2011: Session no.16
Court announces the adjournment of the case until 28 December, pending a judgement from the Cairo cassation court, due on 3 November to see the lawsuit presented by one of civil claims lawyers to change the panel of judges.
7 December 2011 
The court of cassation rejects the demand that the panel of judges trying Mubarak be changed.
28 December 2011: Session No.17
Regular trial hearings begin after a 100-day stoppage. Civil claims lawyers demand the court summon chief of staff Sami Anan to testify. The court adjourns the trial until 2 January 2012.
2 January 2012: Session No.18
The court delegates Public Prosecution to contact Egyptian national TV so video technicians can investigate the video clips presented to the court. Fights break out between civil claims lawyers.
3-4 January 2012: Sessions No.19-20
Prosecution sums up its case before the court.
5 January 2012: Session No.21
Prosecution concludes its summation by demanding the death penalty for Hosni Mubarak, El-Adly and his six former aides for ordering the killing of protesters. It also calls for the maximum prison sentence for Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, as well as fugitive businessman Hussein Salem, in the corruption case.
The civil claims lawyers begin to present their case. The court adjourns their hearing sessions until 9 January.
9-10 January: Sessions No.22-23
Civil claims lawyers begin to present their case against Mubarak and El-Adly. The court decides to adjourn the trial until 17 January, giving a month in which the defendants and their defence teams can present their cases. 
17-22 January 2012: Sessions No.24-28
The Mubaraks' defence lawyer Farid Deeb presents his arguments for the innocence of his clients from all charges, at one point claiming Hosni Mubarak is still the president of Egypt. Trial is adjourned to 23 January.
23-30 January 2012: Sessions No.29-30
Former minister of interior Habib El Adly’s defence lawyer begins to present his case. Trial is adjourned until 31 January.
31 January – 1,2,5 February 2012: Sessions No.31-34
Former minister of interior’s aide and head of central security forces Ahmed Ramzy, has his defence arguments presented in the case of ordering the killing of protesters case. Claims the prosecution is biased towards public opinion. Trial is adjourned until 6 February 2012.
6-7 February 2012: Sessions No.35-36
Former minister of interior’s aide Adly El Fayed's defence presents his arguments, claiming that the prosecution is basing its accusations on public opinion. 
8-11 February 2012: Sessions No.37-39
The former head of state security Hassan Abdel Rahman’s defence demands the court acquit his client as he should be considered a witness and not a defendant. Trial is adjourned until 12 February 2012.
12-14 February 2012: Sessions No.40-42
The former head of Cairo security directorate Ismail El Shaer’s defence presents his argument, accusing the public prosecution of being biased towards public opinion. 
15 February 2012: Session No.43 
The former head of Giza security directorate Ismail Marassi’s defence lawyer presents his argument. 
16 February 2012: Session No.44 
Defence lawyer for the former head of 6 October security directorate Omar El-Faramawy presents his argument. 
20 February 2012: Session No.45
Defendants' legal terms conclude their arguments. Court listens to comments from the prosecution and civil claims lawyers. 
22 February 2012: Session No.46
All defendants are allowed to speak, including Mubarak who recites verses of poetry about Egypt. The judge, Ahmed Refaat declares the final verdict will be announced on 2 June 2012.
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