Timeline: Egypt's turbulent period up to referendum

AFP , Saturday 15 Dec 2012

Key events in Egypt between the 2011 fall of Hosni Mubarak's regime and Saturday's referendum on a new constitution pushed by President Mohamed Morsi and his Islamist allies:


- 11: Mubarak steps down after 18 days of protests in which 850 people were killed, handing power to the army.


- 19: Voters approve a new interim constitution.


- 13: Mubarak is detained and held in a hospital.


- 7: 15 people die and 200 are injured as Muslims and Christians clash in Cairo.


- 9: 25 people, mainly Coptic Christians, are killed in clashes with security forces in Cairo.


- 19: Start of a week of clashes between police and demonstrators opposed to the military regime that leaves 42 dead.

- 28-29: Egypt holds its first post-revolution parliamentary election in Cairo and the port city of Alexandria. Islamist parties come out ahead.


- 1: Riots kill 74 people after a football match in Port Said.


- 23-24: First round of presidential election.

- 31: A three decades-old state of emergency comes to an end.


- 2: Mubarak is sentenced to life in prison for the deaths of protesters. An appeal is subsequently lodged.

- 14: Egypt's top court rules the whole Islamist-dominated parliament illegitimate, leading to its dissolution.

- 16-17: Second round of the presidential election.

- 24: Morsi declared president with 51.7 percent of the vote.


- 8: Morsi issues a decree annulling the supreme court's dissolution of parliament.

- 9: The court in response says its rulings are "binding."


- 12: Morsi scraps a constitutional document which handed sweeping powers to the military.


- 21: US President Barack Obama calls Morsi to thank him for his role in negotiating an Israeli-Hamas truce in Gaza.

- 22: Morsi decrees sweeping new powers for himself and dismisses prosecutor general Abdel Meguid Mahmud.

- 23: Protests erupt against what the opposition terms Morsi's "power grab".

- 30: Islamist-dominated constituent assembly adopts the draft constitution after a process boycotted by liberals and Christians.


- 2: Egypt's top court goes on strike after Islamist protesters block the courthouse.

- 5: Violent clashes break out in front of the presidential palace between pro- and anti-Morsi protesters, killing eight people and wounding more than 640.

- 8: Morsi annuls the decree giving himself sweeping powers.

- 10: Morsi gives the army police powers to arrest civilians and protect state institutions, up to the results of the referendum.

- 11: International Monetary Fund announces a $4.8 billion loan to Egypt is delayed at Cairo's request because of the unrest.

- 12: Morsi orders referendum to be split on December 15 and 22 because of a lack of judges to oversee it -- a legal requirement. The opposition urges a "no" vote.

- 15: First stage of referendum takes place.

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