Prosecutors have ordered the detention of Essam El-Erian for 30 days pending investigations into charges of instigating street clashes.
The vice president of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party will be held for 15 days over clashes between local residents and supporters of Mohamed Morsi in Giza's Bayn Al-Sarayat district in July, and for a further 15 days over clashes near Giza's Al-Istiqama Mosque in August.
He denies the charges.
In September, El-Erian was charged in absentia for his alleged involvement in clashes in Giza's Al-Bahr Al-Azam district in July.
He also faces separate charges of inciting the murder of protesters on several other occasions, including at the Ittihadiya presidential palace in December 2012 and at the Brotherhood headquarters in June 2013. A number of other Brotherhood leaders are being investigated on the same charges.
Security forces arrested El-Erian at a flat in Cairo’s Fifth Settlement suburb in the early hours of Wednesday.
Dozens of Brotherhood leaders and hundreds of rank and file members have been arrested since the deadly dispersal in mid-August of sit-ins calling for Morsi's reinstatement. Most face charges of inciting violence.
Mohamed Morsi, who hails from the Brotherhood, was deposed from the presidency by the army on 3 July amid mass nationwide demonstrations against his rule.