A Ka-52 helicopter gunship fires rockets at a target at an unknown location in Ukraine. AP
The Ministry of Defence said the incident involved two unmanned aerial vehicles and took place around 1:20 am (2220 GMT Sunday).
"Air defence systems on duty destroyed two UAVs over the territory of Belgorod region," the ministry posted on Telegram.
Belgorod regional governor Vyacheslav Gladkov said the drones were "shot down" over the Yakovlevsky district, which lies to the north and west of Belgorod city.
"There were no casualties. Fragments of one of the drones fell on the roadway near a private residential building. All emergency services are on site," he wrote on Telegram.
Since Ukraine launched its counter-offensive in early June, Russia has weathered a wave of drone attacks in recent months that have sporadically damaged buildings, including in Moscow.
Russian officials have downplayed their significance.
Overnight into Thursday, two Ukrainian drones were destroyed above Rostov-on-Don in southwest Russia -- a major operational hub for Moscow's military in the Ukraine conflict.
One came down in the port city's historic centre, close to a key military headquarters.
The HQ was briefly taken over by Wagner mercenaries led by Yevgeny Prigozhin in late June. Prigozhin died with nine other people when a plane flying from Moscow to Saint Petersburg crashed in August.