Itamar Ben Gvir, Israel s new Minister of National Security and leader of the far-right Otzma Yehudit (Jewish Power) party, greets supporters during a visit to Jerusalem s Mahane Yehuda market on December 30, 2022. AFP
"Our government will not surrender to the threats of Hamas," Ben-Gvir said in a statement published by his spokesman, after the Palestinian group warned such a move was a "red line".
Ben-Gvir's visit comes days after he took office as national security minister, a position which gives him powers over the police.
Al-Aqsa mosque is the third-holiest place in Islam and the most sacred site to Jews, who refer to the compound as the Temple Mount.
"The Temple Mount is the most important place for the people of Israel, and we maintain the freedom of movement for Muslims and Christians, but Jews will also go up to the mount, and those who make threats must be dealt with -- with an iron hand," he said.
Lying within Israeli-annexed east Jerusalem, the compound is administered by the Waqf Islamic affairs council, with Israeli forces operating there and controlling access.
Ben-Gvir has lobbied to overhaul the site’s management to allow Jewish prayer there, a move opposed by mainstream rabbinical authorities.
Waqf guards told AFP that Ben-Gvir was accompanied by units of the Israeli security forces, while a drone hovered above the holy site.
While Ben-Gvir has visited the compound numerous times since entering parliament in April 2021, his presence as a top minister carries far greater weight.
A controversial visit in 2000 by then opposition leader Ariel Sharon was one of the main triggers for the second Palestinian intifada, or uprising, which lasted until 2005.
Ahead of Ben-Gvir's visit, top Palestinian official Hussein Al Sheikh on Monday said it would be a "blatant and shameless provocation which requires a Palestinian, Arab and international response".
Basem Naim, a senior Hamas official, last week warned such a step would be "a big red line and it will lead to an explosion".
Hamas rules the Gaza Strip and in May 2021 an 11-day war broke out in the territory between Palestinian militants and Israel, after violence at Al-Aqsa mosque.
Hundreds of Palestinians and dozens of Israeli police officers were wounded in the preceding clashes across east Jerusalem, initially sparked by restrictions on Palestinians gathering and possible evictions of residents.
During this period Ben-Gvir rallied his supporters at Israeli settler homes in east Jerusalem, which has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Six-Day War.
For years seen as a fringe figure, the Jewish Power leader entered mainstream politics with the backing of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
Ben-Gvir has advocated for Arab-Israelis deemed disloyal to the state to be expelled and for the annexation of the occupied West Bank.
Until a few years ago, he had a portrait in his living room of Baruch Goldstein, who massacred 29 Palestinian worshippers at a Hebron mosque in 1994.
He launched his ministerial career on December 29 as part of Israel's most right-wing government in history led by Netanyahu.