The West moved to send its first concrete aid to Libya's rebellion in the east of the country, hoping to give it the momentum to oust Muammar Gaddafi. But the Libyan leader's regime clamped down in its stronghold in the capital, where residents said food prices have skyrocketed.
The two sides in Libya's crisis appeared entrenched, and the direction it takes next could depend on which can hold out longest. Gaddafi's opponents, including mutinous army units, hold nearly the entire eastern half of the country, much of the oil infrastructure and some cities in the West.
Gaddafi is dug in in Tripoli and nearby cities, backed by better armed security forces and militiamen.
In the two opposition-held cities closest to Tripoli - Zawiya and Misrata - rebel forces were locked into standoffs with Gaddafi loyalists.
In Zawiya, some 30 miles (50 kilometers) west of Tripoli, residents said they were anticipating a possible attack by pro-regime troops to try to retake the city. "Our people are waiting for them to come and, God willing, we will defeat them," said one resident who only wanted to be quoted by his first name, Alaa.
In Misrata, Libya's third largest city 125 miles (200 kilometers) east of Tripoli, skirmishes took place overnight between rebel forces controlling the city and troops loyal to Gadhafi, according to residents. Each side controls part of a sprawling air base on the outskirts of the city, and neither was able to make any gains in the latest sporadic fighting, they said.
Gaddafi opponents have moved to consolidate their hold in the east, centered on Benghazi - Libya's second largest city, where the uprising began. Politicians there on Sunday set up their first leadership council to manage day-to-day affairs, taking a step toward forming what could be an alternative to Gaddafi's regime.
The opposition is backed by numerous units of the military in the east that joined the uprising, and they hold several bases and Benghazi's airport. But so far, the units do not appear to have melded into a unified fighting force.
Gaddafi long kept the military weak, fearing a challenge to his rule, so many units are plagued by shortages of supplies and ammunition.
In the capital, there were attempts to restore aspects of normalcy, residents said. Many stores downtown reopened, and traffic in the streets increased. Long lines were formed outside banks by Libyans wanting to receive the equivalent of $400 per family that Gaddafi pledged in a bid to shore up public loyalty.
One resident said pro-Gaddafi security forces man checkpoints around the city of 2 million and prowl the city for any sign of unrest. She told The Associated Press that the price of rice, a main staple, has gone up 500 per cent amid the crisis, reaching the equivalent of $40 for a five-kilogram (10-pound) bag.
Bakeries are limited to selling five loaves of bread per family, and most butcher shops are closed, she said.
Some schools reopened, but only for a half day and attendance was low. "My kids are too afraid to leave home and they even sleep next to me at night," said Sidiq Al-Damjah, 41 and father of three. "I feel like I'm living a nightmare." The capital saw violence Friday when residents said pro-Gaddafi militias opened fire on protesters trying to march. But since then, Tripoli has been quiet, with many families staying off the streets.
Gaddafi has launched by far the bloodiest crackdown in a wave of anti-government uprisings sweeping the Arab world, the most serious challenge to his four decades in power.
The United States, Britain and the UN Security Council all slapped sanctions on Libya this weekend.
In Paris, Prime Minister Francois Fillon said Monday that France was sending two planes with humanitarian aid to Benghazi, the opposition stronghold in eastern Libya.
The planes would leave "in a few hours" for Benghazi with doctors, nurses, medicines and medical equipment.
"It will be the beginning of a massive operation of humanitarian support for the populations of liberated territories," he said on RTL radio. He said Paris was studying "all solutions" - including military options - so that "Gaddafi understands that he should go, that he should leave power." In Geneva, US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton was meeting Monday with foreign ministers from Britain, France, Germany and Italy, pressing for tough sanctions on the Libyan government. A day earlier, Clinton kept up pressure for Gaddafi to step down and "call off the mercenaries" and other troops that remain loyal to him.
"We've been reaching out to many different Libyans who are attempting to organise in the east and as the revolution moves westward there as well," Clinton said.
"I think it's way too soon to tell how this is going to play out, but we're going to be ready and prepared to offer any kind of assistance that anyone wishes to have from the United States." Two US senators said Washington should recognise and arm a provisional government in rebel-held areas of eastern Libya and impose a no-fly zone over the area - enforced by US warplanes - to stop attacks by the regime. But Fillon said a no-fly zone needed UN support "which is far from being obtained today."