Twenty-five police officers and nine fans were injured in the violence, which broke out around Bursaspor’s Ataturk stadium.
Hundreds of Bursaspor supporters, wanting to prevent opposition fans from entering the venue, began to fight with police several hours before kick off and pelted them with stones and bottles.
Television images showed some fans brandishing baseball bats and others setting fire to rubbish bins. Riot police used pepper spray and water jets to disperse the crowds.
Turkish media reported that Bursaspor and Besiktas encounters have a history of fan trouble, dating from events in the 2003-2004 season when Bursaspor were relegated.
Bursaspor authorities decided to allow almost 400 Besiktas fans to watch the game as a goodwill gesture but none made it to the stadium.
Turkey’s football federation said they would announce a decision on the future of the match on 12 May.