The 43-year-old has been handed a two-year contract following the sacking of Briton Bobby Williamson last month after Uganda lost further ground in their qualifying group for the 2014 finals in Brazil with a March defeat in Liberia.
Sredojevich was also sacked last month by Uganda's neighbours Rwanda after a poor run of results but has built a reputation at club level in east Africa over the last decade.
Uganda host Liberia on June 8 and a week later play Angola, also in Kampala, giving them a chance to win their first matches in Group J and claw their way back into contention.
They have two points from three matches but are only three points behind leaders Senegal in a four-team group from which only the winners reach the final qualifying stage.
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