Parker topped the poll of football journalists, ahead of Tottenham defender Gareth Bale, who was last week named the Professional Footballers' Association Player of the Year.
Football Writers Association chairman Steve Bates said: "Scott Parker has been so consistent this season with his performances in a West Ham team battling for Premier League survival and as such has forced himself back into the England national set-up.
"He has been an inspirational figure for the Irons and hopefully his professionalism will be rewarded with West Ham staying up at the end of the season.
"In what was one of the tightest votes of recent seasons, Scott is certainly a worthy winner and follows in the footsteps of a long line of superb footballers who have been given this prestigious honour."
He is the first West Ham player to win this honour since Bobby Moore in 1964.