Totti, in his 19th season at Roma, had his 64th minute spot-kick saved by Gianluigi Buffon, three minutes after Giorgio Chiellini had equalised for Juventus at the Stadio Olimpico.
Troubled Roma had taken an early lead through Daniele De Rossi.
Juventus went level at the top with surprise packages Udinese who beat Chievo 2-1 on Sunday. Both teams have 30 points from 14 games, two ahead of champions AC Milan and Lazio.
Ambitious Roma, struggling to live up to high expectations after a pre-season splurge in the transfer market, are a modest ninth with 18 points.
Roma had three players sent off in a 3-0 defeat at Fiorentina a week ago and the tension boiled over on Sunday when coach Luis Enrique lost his temper at a news conference.
But, with topscorer Pablo Osvaldo back in the side after being banned for lashing out at team mate Erik Lamela at Udinese two weeks ago, they took a fifth-minute lead when Totti’s cross was side-footed home by De Rossi.
Juventus levelled in the 61st minute when Marcelo Estigarribia’s mis-cued shot inadvertently set up a chance for Chiellini who headed home.
They barely had time to celebrate before Roma were awarded a controversial penalty when Arturo Vidal was judged to have tripped Lamela.
But, after angry Juve protests, the 35-year-old Totti’s powerful effort was superbly saved by Buffon.
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