Nearly half of Portugal's triumphant Euro 2016 winning squad will miss the World Cup after Portugal coach Fernando Santos made what he said were some difficult choices in naming his final 23 for Russia on Thursday.
Centre forward Eder, who scored the winning goal in the Euro 2016 final against France, was among 10 players from that squad who were omitted from Santos's list on Thursday.
Other unlucky players included midfielders Andre Gomes and Renato Sanches, forward Nani and defender Eliseu.
Cristiano Ronaldo, Portugal's alltime leading scorer and most capped player, headed the list for the European champions, who face Spain, Morocco and Iran in a tricky first round group.
Other stalwarts included goalkeeper Rui Patricio, central defenders Pepe (35) and Bruno Alves (36), midfielders William Carvalho and Joao Moutinho and flamboyant forward Ricardo Quaresma.
"As a professional, I have to make decisions and I know that I'm not going to please everyone," Santos told a news conference.
"But, on the personal side, it hurts me to leave out players who took part in the European championship, and others who took part in the qualifiers and helped the team get this far.
"For me, this is always difficult."
Goalkeepers: Anthony Lopes (Olympique Lyonnais), Beto (Goztepe), Rui Patricio (Sporting)
Defenders: Bruno Alves (Rangers), Cedric Soares (Southampton), Jose Fonte (Dalian Yifang), Mario Rui (Napoli), Pepe (Besiktas), Raphael Guerreiro (Borussia Dortmund), Ricardo Pereira (Porto), Ruben Dias (Benfica)
Midfielders: Adrien Silva (Leicester), Bruno Fernandes (Sporting), Joao Mario (West Ham United), Joao Moutinho (AS Monaco), Manuel Fernandes (Lokomotiv Moscow), William Carvalho (Sporting)
Forwards: Andre Silva (Milan), Bernardo Silva (Manchester City), Cristiano Ronaldo (Real Madrid), Gelson Martins (Sporting), Goncalo Guedes (Valencia), Ricardo Quaresma (Besiktas).
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