The alleged act took place on Dec. 31 at a night club in Barcelona, police told The Associated Press.
Alves will now go before a judge, who will decide on the charges.
The charge of sexual abuse in Spain can mean anything from unsolicited and unwanted sexually groping to rape. Police said they could give no detail on the case.
The 39-year-old Alves is one of soccer's most successful players, winning major titles with several elite clubs, including Barcelona, Juventus and Paris Saint-Germain. He currently plays with Mexican club Pumas.
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