"I come to Corinthians in order to succeed -- and I want to win back my place in the Brazil side," the 29-year-old forward told reporters.
The burly, left-footed striker, nicknamed 'The Emperor', left Roma after just a handful of appearances this season, despite having signed a three-year contract only last summer.
With Corinthians he will earn 500,000 reais a month ($306,500), including bonuses, which is around 100 times the average wage in his country.
The club will hope for a solid return from a player who has had a chequered career since starting out with Flamengo.
In 2001 he moved to Inter Milan but was farmed out for loan spells with Fiorentina, Parma and then Sao Paulo.
Adriano's spell at Parma was largely successful but he arrived at Sao Paulo under a cloud after Inter lost patience with his erratic form and penchant for partying.
In 2009-10 he enjoyed a more productive season with Rio club Flamengo, prompting Roma to chance their arm on another move to Italy.
But that did not work out and they rescinded his contract earlier this month.
"I will always have determination and desire -- I always like to get stuck into work," said Adriano, who has fought problems with alcohol and is currently battling to shake off a shoulder injury.
"Anyone who works with me knows what I can do on the pitch. I just need to get back into the swing of things and the fans will be happy.
"I want to get over that so I can be the Adriano of old."
Adriano had hoped that Flamengo might make the call to bring him back on board after he averaged more than a goal every other game last season, but no offer was forthcoming.
"I had to forget about what happened at Flamengo and I have done so," said Adriano, who added that he had been given some moral support by Ronaldo, who hung up his boots earlier this year after finishing up at Corinthians.