The remains, made of mudbricks, were found on a 170cm tall mount of debris and rubble.
The mission also found a collection of marble blocks that might have once formed a staircase to enable worshippers to reach the temple.
The site is located between the Peluzium Fort and the Tezkariya Church.
Mostafa Waziri, secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, said on Monday the temple was not located until the Egyptian mission unearthed a collection of red granite blocks that once formed the temple’s entrance gate, which was destroyed long ago.
The entrance gate comprised a few red granite columns, each 8m tall, and an upper lintel decorated with Roman text about the construction day of the Zeus Caseous Temple.
In 1910, Waziri added, French Egyptologist Jean Cledat uncovered a collection of engraved blocks confirming the existence of the temple in the area, but he could not find it.
It was not until last month that the Egyptian archaeological mission stumbled upon the blocks of the temple gate.
A photogrammetry survey and study are currently being conducted on the blocks to understand the architectural design of the temple.